Thursday, 23 May 2013

Why Does the Sun Make Your Skin Darker

How does the sun affect people with dark complexions? 

            Dark complexions have both advantages and disadvantages when it comes to sun exposure. On one hand, dark skin is less likely to get sunburned and less likely to develop skin cancer. On the other hand, because dark skin naturally provides protection from the sun's ultraviolet rays, it prevents dark-skinned people from producing the necessary amount of vitamin D. When people with lighter complexions spend time in the sun, their bodies produce melanin, the pigment that gives color to skin and creates a tan. Melanin serves as a natural defense against UV rays, and people with dark complexions, especially those with olive, brown or black skin, already have a high concentration of melanin in their skin. This high concentration of melanin is responsible for their dark complexions and protects them from burning easily. In fact, as the amount of melanin increases, so does the natural protection from sunburn. But while a higher concentration of melanin provides some sun protection, it doesn't prevent skin cancer.
            But everyone needs some sun exposure to produce vitamin D. Vitamin D, also known as the "sunshine vitamin," helps the body absorb calcium, which maintains bone density and prevents osteoporosis And research shows that vitamin D may also help protect against chronic diseases such as diabetes, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis and heart disease . However, dark-skinned people's high concentration of melanin makes it more difficult for them to produce enough vitamin D. In fact, dark pigment in the skin reduces the skin's ability to synthesize vitamin D from sunlight by 95 percent. Lighter-skinned people can get enough vitamin D after 10 to 15 minutes of sun exposure a few times a week, but people with dark complexions may need five to 10 times more sun exposure to synthesize that same amount of vitamin D .
Even though vitamin D is important to your health, you should always wear sunscreen when spending long periods of time in the sun. If you're concerned about vitamin D levels, speak to a doctor or dietician. Keep reading to learn more about how the sun affects people with dark complexions.


Some of the sun's rays are beneficial, but others, such as ultraviolet rays, are hazardous. This radiation comes in three forms: ultraviolet A (UVA), ultraviolet B (UVB) and ultraviolet C (UVC). The earth's atmosphere filters out UVC radiation, but UVA and UVB affect you every day. UVB affects the top layers of skin, while UVA penetrates to the deeper layers. Your hair and your skin are negatively affected by these UV rays, although they appear to react differently.


A pigment called melanin determines the color of your skin and hair. One form of melanin is a reddish-yellow color, while the other is brownish-black. The amount of each type of melanin you have in your skin and hair is genetically determined. Melanin protects your skin from the sun's harmful ultraviolet A and B rays by turning it a darker color. People with very little melanin often acquire no tan and are at the greatest risk for sunburn, premature skin aging and skin cancer. People with dark skin should also be cautious about sun exposure.


Your skin is the largest organ in your body. It protects you from the sun's harmful rays by producing the pigment melanin to darken your skin. Ultraviolet rays in sunlight destroy the melanin in your skin, which triggers your body to produce more and darker melanin. This melanin reaction to ultraviolet rays can cause sunburn or suntan. UV radiation also causes the skin to coarsen and wrinkle, making even young skin look and feel old.


Most of the hair on your body is made up of dead cells. Only the root is living, and once the hair emerges from the skin, the cells die. Melanin determines the color of your hair. People with very little melanin have blonde hair, while people with a great deal of melanin have black hair. Unlike the skin, which can regenerate melanin after UV damage, your hair is dead and can no longer make melanin. Sunlight kills the melanin in your hair and fades out the color, making it lighter and lighter. Your new hair will be as dark as before, since it contains the correct amount of melanin.


Although light-skinned, light-eyed people are at the greatest risk from UV radiation, the Skin Cancer Foundation urges everyone to limit their exposure. Wearing sunscreens, broad-brimmed hats, tightly-woven, loose clothing and sunglasses helps fend off UV rays. Keeping out of the sun as much as possible is the best option. This is especially true from 10:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. in the Northern Hemisphere.

The American Academy of Dermatologists points out that tanning damages your skin irreparably, especially if you use a tanning bed or sunlamp while in your teens. These devices use the deeply-penetrating UVA rays to turn your skin darker, inuring your skin in the deeper layers. The damage to your skin may not appear until decades later.


Tuesday, 30 April 2013

Bendable smartphones

Bendable smartphones coming soon

Imagine a cellphone that bends to block a snooping bystander from reading your private messages! 

Researchers, including an Indian origin scientist, have developed prototypes for gen-next shape-shifting smartphones and mobile devices that can change form on-demand. 

The research introduces the term 'shape resolution' and its ten features, to describe the resolution of an interactive device, in addition to display and touch resolution. 

The research, led by Dr Anne Roudaut and Professor Sriram Subramanian, from the University of Bristol's Department of Computer Science, have used 'shape resolution' to compare the resolution of six prototypes the team have built using the latest technologies in shape changing material, such as shape memory alloy and electro active polymer. 

One example of a device is the team's concept of Morphees, self-actuated flexible mobile devices that can change shape on-demand to better fit the many services they are likely to support. 

The team believes Morphees will be the next generation of mobile devices, where users can download applications that embed a dedicated form factor, for instance the "stress ball app" that collapses the device in on itself or the "game app" that makes it adopt a console-like shape. 

"The interesting thing about our work is that we are a step towards enabling our mobile devices to change shape on-demand," Roudaut, Research Assistant in the Department of Computer Science's Bristol Interaction and Graphics group, said. 

"Imagine downloading a game application on the app-store and that the mobile phone would shape-shift into a console-like shape in order to help the device to be grasped properly. 

"The device could also transform into a sphere to serve as a stress ball, or bend itself to hide the screen when a password is being typed so passers-by can't see private information," said Roudaut. 

By comparing the shape resolution of their prototypes, the researchers have created insights to help designers towards creating high shape resolution Morphees. 

In future, the team hopes to build higher shape resolution Morphees by investigating the flexibility of materials. 

They are also interested in exploring other kinds of deformations that the prototypes did not explore, such as porosity and stretchability.

Wednesday, 20 March 2013

High Biological Value Protein (High BV)

Biological Value

The Biological Value (BV) is a scale of measurement used to determine what percentage of a given nutrient source is utilized by the body. The scale is most frequently applied to protein sources. Biological Value is derived from providing a measure intake of protein, then determining the nitrogen uptake versus nitrogen excretion. The theoretical highest BV of any food source is 100%. In short - BV refers to how well and how quickly your body can actually use the protein you consume.
The BV is particularly used in protein, as the body can not store excess amino acids (other main nutrients, such as fat and carbohydrates can be stored by the body). The daily diet should thus always provide enough protein, and protein of the proper quality, to fulfil the need of the body.
The most limiting amino acid thus determines the BV of the whole protein. If the body needs, for example, 1 gram of phenylalanine daily, and the food supplies 500 gram of protein, but only 0.5 gram of phenylalanine, the BV of the protein is very low. Only a fraction of the protein can be used, the rest has to be excreted.
A low BV can be compensated by consuming other proteins. For example, when a protein is low in leucine, the BV is low. When combining this protein with a protein with high leucine content, the combined BV will be higher than that from the first protein alone. In the combination another amino acid may be limiting, thus determining a new BV. You can never add two biological values to obtain a new biological value. The new value in a combination will be determined by the most restricted amino acid in the combination.
The BV is very important for vegetarians and vegans, who do not consume animal protein. In general, animal proteins have a higher BV than vegetable protein, due to the resemblance of humans and animals. Vegetarians and vegans thus should cleverly select protein sources to obtain a high BV.

Table 1 : Biological value of some foods

Biological value
Whole egg
Rice, polished
Wheat, whole
Beans, dry
Egg white protein is considered to have one of the best amino acids profiles for human nutrition. Plant proteins generally have lower content of some essential amino acids such as lysine and methionine. Soy protein is one of the best plant proteins, but nevertheless, the most prominent difference is the proportion of the essential sulphur-containing amino acid methionine. Egg white protein has approximately three times more methionine than is found in soy protein.

Amino acid profiles of food proteins

The following table shows representative amino acid profiles of some common foods and dietary protein supplements. The percentages are averages of several commercial products. Casein and whey are milk proteins. Casein is the protein that precipitates from milk when curdled with rennet; it is the basis for making cheese. Whey is the watery part of milk that remains after the casein is separated.

Table 2 : Amino acid composition of food proteins (Percentage (%) by weight of amino acid)

Amino Acid
 egg white 
 aspartic acid
 glutamic acid
 histidine *
 isoleucine *
 leucine *
 lysine *
 methionine *
 phenylalanine * 
 threonine *
 tryptophan *
 valine *
* Essential amino acids



Thursday, 14 March 2013

Healthy cooking oil: Olive oil Vs Canola Oil


What is Canola Oil?

Canola seeds from the lovely yellow canola flowers are harvested and pressed, to obtain canola oil. This oil is low in saturated fat and is high in monounsaturated fat. In fact, canola oil has the lowest level of saturated fatty acids, as compared to any vegetable oil. Moreover, since it is high in monounsaturated fatty acids, it can reduce blood cholesterol levels. Canola oil also contains moderate levels of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids. It also contains adequate amounts of vitamin E. 
Qualities of Canola oil:                                     
  • Canola, the world’s healthiest cooking oil comes from the seeds of the Canola Plant.
  • Among all the cooking oil canola oil has least saturated fat.
  • With the multiple health benefits like ‘Free from Trans fat and cholesterol‘, ‘high in Omega3’, Canola oil is the perfect Heart-Healthy choice.
  • High smoking point, neutral taste and odour, light texture makes it ideal cooking oil for any type of cooking like salads, stir-fry, sautéing, baking, grilling and for any type of cuisine. Indian cooking is best done with Canola Oil.
  • Canola oil is now the 3rd most consumed vegetable oil in the world.
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration authorized a qualified health claim on its potential to reduce heart disease risk when used in place of saturated fat.
  • Overall Acceptability of Canola oil based on Sensory Evaluation found to be best even if it was used in half amount in comparison to other oils. It has been lab analysed that consumption of oil deceases by as much as 50% in Indian cooking with Canola Oil despite maintaining the same sensory and taste parameters.
  • Olive Oil Vs. Canola Oil

    Olive oil has a low smoking point, which means it smokes at a lower temperature, thus, cannot be used for deep frying, etc. Canola oil on the other hand, has a higher smoking point and can be used for deep frying and high heat stir frying.

    We come across a lot of promotional measures being carried out to promote canola oil. The promotional slogans say that canola oil is superior to olive oil due to its high amount of monounsaturated fatty acids. However, how much of this is true? Is canola oil really better than olive oil? The answer is No! Olive oil has been around for myriads of years and has been tested and tried. It has proven its superiority. Indepth research about canola oil and its health benefits have yet to be proven scientifically. So, even though the food oil industry keeps promoting canola oil as olive oil's twin, olive oil is the big brother for now!

    Fat Content
    We also hear that both canola oil and olive oil contain 'good fats', however, which one has higher content of 'good fats'. Olive oil has a higher proportion of good fats or monounsaturated fatty acids, as compared to canola oil. In fact, the good fats present in olive oil are thrice higher than that in same amount of canola oil. Moreover, olive oil also has higher levels of polyunsaturated fats than canola oil. Though both canola and olive oil have low levels of saturated fats (bad fat), as compared to other cooking oils, the amount of saturated fats are higher in olive oil than in canola oil. Thus, with two plus points and one minus point, olive oil still contains higher levels of good fats than canola oil.

    Health Benefits
    Canola oil is rich in omega-3 fatty acids and omega-6-fatty acids, which help reduce the risk of heart diseases, arthritis and cancers. Moreover, since these essential fatty acids are not manufactured in the body, canola oil becomes an important source. Although olive oil contains omega-3-fatty acids, the amount is lower as compared to canola oil.

    One major difference between canola and olive oil is the cost. Canola plants are relatively cheaper to cultivate and maintain, as compared to olive trees. This reflects in the overall price of the oil as well. Olive oil has been known for its health benefits since time immemorial. However, the problem is that there is not enough olive oil produced for everybody. Moreover, since olive oil is expensive, the affordability of canola oil is better than olive oil.

    Though lots of people love olive oil, there are also those who find its flavor too strong to add it into food. Canola oil is relatively insipid, thereby proving to be suitable oil for baking food items. Moreover, its versatile and smooth texture makes it a great cooking oil, especially for stir frying, sautéing and grilling. Canola oil can also be used in marinades, sauces and salad dressings.

    Culinary Uses
    Olive oil has a lower smoking point, which means it smokes at a lower temperature when heated. This is why olive oil cannot be used for deep frying and high heat stir fries. However, Canola oil with its high smoking point can be used for frying, provided the temperatures are less than 450 degrees Fahrenheit.

    In terms of health benefits, as of today, olive oil is still superior! Nevertheless, canola oil is not far behind. For people who cannot afford consuming olive oil on a day-to-day basis, canola oil is a good option.   Reference ,

Monday, 18 February 2013

MicroSoft Vs Google (The Scroogled War)

Last week the tech world also saw Microsoft launch a campaign against Google with the headline "Don't get scroogled by Gmail". The software giant accuses the internet giant of scanning the emails of Gmail users. According to MS, 70 per cent of the users are unaware that major email providers routinely scan their mails. Microsoft’s solution is to offer its own email service at " believes your privacy is not for sale," says MS.

Last year in the US, the Gmail was at the second place with 69.1 million users. In the first place was Yahoo with 76.7 million users.  Microsoft’s Hotmail was a sorry third with 35.5 million users. (Microsoft has decided to rebrand its service as and asking the Hotmail users to migrate to the address.)

Although Google has been facing these charges for a long time, this is the first time Microsoft has decided to launch a frontal attack. It seems the Redmond based company is too late to have a go at Google because the search giant is well entrenched to swat away any form of attack.

The Petition To Nowhere

At the Scroogled site, Microsoft invites people to sign an online petition. In the week it has been up, it’s gathered about 5,600 signatures:
That’s hardly an overwhelming response, especially considering that the Gmail user base is reported at between 300 million to 425 million users. Rounding up to 6,000 signatures, and using the lowest 300 million figure, means that potentially, 0.002% of Gmail users have used the petition to join Microsoft’s protest. Of course, not all of those signing are Gmail users, as I’ll explain more below. And if Gmail has more than 300 million users, the percentage of Gmail users signing the petition would be even lower. But it’s already so tiny that give or take a million, ten million or even 100 million, it’s pretty clear Gmail users aren’t turning out to support this petition.
Microsoft’s goal is to reach 25,000 signatures. With it currently generating about 325 signatures per day, it might get there in another two months. The day-by-day chart:

In a reply to Microsoft a Google spokesperson Samantha Smith has said that "Advertising keeps Google and many of the websites and services Google offers free of charge... We work hard to make sure that ads are safe, unobtrusive and relevant." The company also said that it was only machines that searched the mails.

In a blow to Microsoft, its search engine Bing fell to the fifth position in global ranking according to comScore's qSearch data. At the top of the table is of course Google. The second place goes to Baidu, the Chinese search engine and the third place is occupied by Yahoo. Yandex, the Russian search engine, that was at the fifth place moved up by one place to push down Bing. So it appears that Baidu and Yandex will cause more worry for Google than Bing. The rise of the two search engines proves that there is a lot of potential for local search engines. When will India have a search engine of its own?

There is also some happy news for Microsoft. Contrary to the expectations Microsoft’s web browser the Internet Explorer (IE) has held on to its position as the top browser for PCs. According to NetMarketShare, the share of Google’s Chrome, which was expected to breeze past Firefox, decline to 17.48 per cent. Firefox itself has a 19.94 per cent share. But, the real hero was IE. Its market share went up to 55.14 per cent in 2013 from the 51.87 per cent share it had in December 2011, surprising the analysts.

Reference: manorama,

Saturday, 26 January 2013

Resolve the most common issues in Yahoo! Mail

Basic troubleshooting steps 


How to resolve the most common issues in Yahoo! Mail, Yahoo! Contacts, Yahoo! Calendar, and Yahoo! Notepad, including:
  • Mail freezes, performs slowly, or folders / messages will not load
  • Mail is blank
  • Buttons / pull-down menus / scroll bars / text fields are missing or don't work
  • Can't attach or download files
  • Unable to send, forward, or reply to an email message
  • Can't insert, add, or edit contacts in the "To" field or Address Book.

Your Internet browser is usually the cause of the problem. Your browser may not be supported, or your browser's settings may need adjustment.

By making a few adjustments to your Internet browser and/or computer settings, you can resolve the most common problems in Yahoo! Mail, Contacts, Calendar, and Notepad. We encourage you to sign in to Yahoo! Mail after each set of steps to see if the issue is resolved.
Before proceeding: Test with a different supported browser. If you experienced problems in Internet Explorer, try accessing your Yahoo! Mail in Firefox or Chrome to see if the problem resolves itself.
Step 1:
  1. Ensure that you are using a supported browser. Yahoo! Mail may not work properly in older browsers.
  2. Clear your browser's cache and cookies.
  3. Ensure JavaScript is enabled and updated.
  4. Sign in to Yahoo! Mail and see if the issue is resolved.
Step 2:
  1. Disable browser add-ons and plug-ins.
  2. Update Adobe Flash Player.
  3. Sign in to Yahoo! Mail and see if the issue is resolved.
Step 3:
  1. Temporarily disable antivirus, antispyware, and firewall products.
  2. If you're using Internet Explorer, check your Internet Explorer Compatibility Mode settings. You should disable compatibility mode if it is enabled.
  3. Sign in to Yahoo! Mail and see if the issue is resolved.
Step 4:
  1. Restart your computer.
  2. Test from another computer (this eliminates your computer as a cause of this issue).
  3. Sign in to Yahoo! Mail and see if the issue is resolved.

Troubleshooting "error 999" code


This article provides troubleshooting steps for resolving the "Unable to process request at this time -- error 999" error when using Yahoo!.

The 999 error is caused by unusually high activity from either your computer or your IP address to a specific page or pages within Yahoo!. While this type of error is usually temporary, there are troubleshooting steps you can take if you continue to experience this issue:
  1. Try accessing Yahoo! from a different computer or a different Internet connection to see if the issue continues or if it goes away.
  2. Scan your computer for spyware and viruses. Spyware programs can change your system settings, serve pop-ups, record your surfing habits, or display advertisements over websites you visit. Other spyware programs and certain computer viruses will run separate programs on your computer for a variety of purposes, sometimes slowing your computer down in the process, and even preventing you from accessing certain Internet sites such as Yahoo!.
  3. Enable cookies and make sure that your Web browser is enabled to accept cookies from Yahoo!. Deleting your cookies can contribute to your receiving this error. For information, please visit help article about enabling cookies.
  4. Does your household or office have multiple computers accessing Yahoo! through a shared Internet connection? If so, you may collectively have to moderate the amount of access you have during a given time frame, so you won't exceed the limit of access from a single IP.
  5. Do you use a third-party software program or application to access Yahoo!? If so, please keep in mind that these types of programs are not supported by Yahoo! and may contribute to you receiving this error. For example, certain plug-ins, depending on how they are configured and the level of activity in your groups, may lead to your receiving the 999 error.


Monday, 21 January 2013

Health benefits of Papaya ( Papita )

Papaya is a powerhouse of Nutrients....!

“Papaya” is recommended to be one such pick from the group of Yellow and orange fruits, which promises abundant health benefits. It is a melon like fruit with yellow- orange flesh with dozens of small black seeds enclosed in skin that ranges in color from green to orange. Papaya has high nutritional benefits. It is rich in Anti-oxidants, the B vitamins, folate and pantothenic acid; and the minerals, potassium and magnesium; and fiber. Together, “these nutrients promote the health of the cardiovascular system and also provide protection against colon cancer.” In addition, papaya contains the digestive enzyme, papain, which is used like bromelain, a similar enzyme found in pineapple, to treat sports injuries, other causes of trauma, and allergies. Vitamin C and vitamin A, which is made in the body from the beta-carotene in papaya, are both needed for the proper function of a healthy immune system. Papaya may therefore be a healthy fruit choice for preventing such illnesses as recurrent ear infections, colds and flu.

Nutritive value of Papaya : Per 100 gm.

o Vitamin A  : 1,750 I.U
o Vitamin B  : Thiamine 0.03 mg.
o Riboflavin : 0.04 mg.
o Niacin       : 0.3 mg.
o Vitamin C : 56 mg.
o Also contains Vitamin E and K.
o Calcium        : 20 mg.
o Iron                : 0.3 mg.
o Phosphorus: 16 mg.
o Potassium   : 470 mg.
  • FAT : 0.1 gm.
  • CAROHYDRATES : 10gm.
  • PROTEIN : 0.6gm.
  • CALORIES : 39
Reported Health Benefits of Papaya

  • Papaya contains the digestive enzyme papain and therefore valuable for aiding digestion.
  • The unique protein-digesting enzymes; papain and chymopapain have been shown to help lower inflammation and to improve healing from burns in addition to helping in digestion of proteins. The antioxidant nutrients found in papaya, including vitamin C, vitamin E, and beta-carotene, are also very good at reducing inflammation.
  • The ripe fruit is easily digestible and prevents constipation.
  • The juice of the papaya aids in relieving infections of the colon and has a tendency to break down pus and mucus reached by the juice.
  • May help prevent cancer in organs and glands with epithelial tissue (ripe papaya). Papaya’s fiber is able to bind to cancer-causing toxins in the colon and keep them away from the healthy colon cells. In addition, papaya’s folate, vitamin C, beta-carotene, and vitamin E have each been associated with a reduced risk of colon cancer
  • Prevents nausea (includes morning sickness and motion sickness)
  • The seeds are antihelmintic, for expelling worms and they are given with honey. Chew and swallow two teaspoonfuls of seeds after each principal meal (three times a day).
  • Papayas may be very helpful for the prevention of atherosclerosis and diabetic heart disease. Papayas are an excellent source of vitamin C as well as a good source of vitamin E and vitamin A (through their concentration of pro-vitamin A carotenoid phytonutrients), three very powerful antioxidants.
  • Papayas are also a good source of fiber, which has been shown to lower high cholesterol levels.
Papaya Contains Antioxidants
One of the benefits of eating papaya is that it helps to prevent cancer. Papaya is a rich source of antioxidants that the body needs to fight against cancer-causing cells. Vitamin C, E and beta-carotenes are antioxidants that prevent all kinds of cancers. So adding a daily serving of papaya to your diet may lessen your risk of developing cancer.
Papaya is Used to Treat Digestive Disorders
Papaya is a great source of proteolytic enzymes that are very important in digesting food. The most important of these proteolytic enzymes found in papaya is papain. Papain breaks down proteins in food, allowing for better digestion. Papain is used in prescription of digestive enzymes to treat individuals with cystic fibrosis or pancreatic conditions; producing for them what the body cannot produce naturally. Eating papaya is also a benefit because papain taken orally treats less serious digestion disorders such as bloating and chronic indigestion. In these cases papain is extracted, dried and sold as tablets.
Papaya Boosts Male Virility
Another great benefit of papaya is to boost male virility. Papaya contains an enzyme called arginine which is known in the medically community to boost blood flow around the penis. Arginine boosts nitric acid in the body to relax the muscles surrounding the blood vessels tat supply the penis. These blood vessels then dilate and increase blood flow. A more concentrated form of arginine is used to treat erectile dysfunction.
Papaya Prevents Premature Aging
Many alternative medical practitioners believe that one of the benefits of papaya is to control premature aging. Papaya helps the body to properly digest food and when the body digests all the nutrients it needs, the body will remain vital for a long time.
Papaya is Used as a Cleanser
Taking a quarter pint (150ml) of papaya juice, cucumber juice and green bean juice in alternating hours for 12 hours can be a benefit to your colon. These juices work as potent natural cleansers when combined.
Papaya is also rich in fiber, which travels through the body and binds itself to cancer-causing toxins in the colon. The fiber in papaya flushes out the toxins in the colon and so one of the benefits of papaya is that it helps prevent colon cancer especially, due to its antioxidants and its fiber content.
Papaya Prevents Heart Attacks and Strokes
The antioxidants in papaya prevent cholesterol from oxidizing. When cholesterol becomes oxidized it forms plaque in the blood vessel walls that can eventually build up and cause a heart attack or stroke.
Also, fiber is known to lower cholesterol. The fiber in papaya converts a substance called homocysteine into harmless amino acids that the body can process, but without the breakdown, homocysteine can eventually damage blood vessel walls, causing strokes or heart attacks.
Papaya Treats Inflammation
Papain and chymopapain, protein-digestive enzymes found in papaya lowers inflammation and improve healing from burns. Papain breaks down the inactive proteins in the skin, removing dead tissue from burns. This benefits the body as it helps heal skin injuries, relieves psoriasis, removes warts, treats ringworms and cold sores.
Also vitamins C, E and beta carotenes are good at reducing inflammation and as such these nutrients are used to treat asthma, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis among many other inflammatory ailments.


Side Effects of Eating Too Much Papaya

The sweet, juicy orange flesh of the papaya is packed with nutrients, making the tropical fruit an ideal snack anytime. A medium-sized papaya contains approximately 120 calories, 20 percent of the average adult's fiber requirements and more than three times the recommended daily allowance of vitamin C. However, eating too much of a good thing can sometimes cause some unpleasant side effects.

Skin Discoloration

Eating too much of a yellow, green or orange-colored food that contains beta carotene can cause a benign form of skin discoloration called carotenemia.

Respiratory Distress

Papaya contains an enzyme called papain, which is used to soothe digestive complaints and to counter inflammation in the throat.

Possible Kidney Stones

A single papaya measuring 5 inches long with a 3-inch diameter contains up to 310 percent of the recommended daily allowance of vitamin C.Consuming more than 1,200 mg daily for children or more than 2,000 mg of vitamin C in adults can induce toxicity symptoms, including oxalate kidney stones. Oxalate is a byproduct of vitamin C once the nutrient has been metabolized.

Gastrointestinal Symptoms

Gastrointestinal symptoms may be a side effect of eating too much papaya. Ironically, the same papain that calms your stomach can cause an upset stomach when taken in large amounts. The high fiber content of papaya can also contribute to unrest of the digestive system when you indulge in too much of the tropical fruit. The latex of the fruit's skin can also cause irritation of the stomach.

Tuesday, 8 January 2013

Header file extension removed from c++ ( Error: No such file iostream.h)

 error c1083

<iostream.h> or <iostream>?

A frequent piece of advice is often given to new C++ programmers is to use <iostream> instead of <iostream.h> or <fstream> instead of <fstream.h>. This is often given with only the explanation that the .h forms are deprecated without explaining what the difference is and why, in fact, using the extensionless version is superior.

Although the <iostream.h> library was deprecated for several years, many C++ users still use it in new code instead of using the newer, standard compliant <iostream> library. What are the differences between the two? First, the .h notation of standard header files was deprecated more than 5 years ago. Using deprecated features in new code is never a good idea. In terms of functionality, <iostream> contains a set of templatized I/O classes which support both narrow and wide characters. By contrast, <iostream.h> classes are confined to char exclusively. Third, the C++ standard specification of iostream's interface was changed in many subtle aspects. Consequently, the interfaces and implementation of <iostream> differ from <iostream.h>. Finally, <iostream> components are declared in namespace std whereas <iostream.h> components are declared in the global scope. Because of these substantial differences, you cannot mix the two libraries in one program. As a rule, use <iostream> in new code and stick to <iostream.h> in legacy code that is incompatible with the new <iostream> library. 

The Advantages of New Over Old

There are several reasons why new code should be written using the extensionless version of the header files instead of the .h forms.

The first is the unpredictability of such code when compiled on modern compilers. As previously mentioned, the result of using the .h headers is implementation specific. And as time goes by, the chance that a given compiler will have the old style library available decreases.

Even given a compiler that has the CFront iostream library available, there are concrete benefits to using the standard version. For one thing, the standard version has an interface that is exception aware. This includes both defining exceptions that the iostream library may throw, but also reducing the number of ways that the iostream library may be interfaced in exception unsafe ways. For example, elimination of two stage construction of iostream objects reduces the possibility of leaking resources.

The new style iostreams also integrate better with the rest of the Standard C++ Library. The best example of this is using istreambuf_iterators to load an entire file into a container.

Also, the standard C++ library has better localization support. This includes the use of locales with stream objects to handle things such as determining if a "." or a "," is used as a decimal seperator. It also includes wide character support to handle a larger range of local characters.

Migration Hints

A large amount of sample code and tutorials are still available that uses the CFront iostream library. This is often old code that simply was never updated to take advantage of the standard. Given the task of modifying code that uses the old style iostream library to the standard version, the most common problems are as follows:
  1. The standard iostream library lives in the std namespace. This can be fixed by either the application of an using declaration or prefixing the relevant identifiers with std::.
  2. The nocreate flag doesn't exist in the standard library version of the iostream library. However, a std::ifstream object will not open a file if it doesn't exist. So one way to bypass this restriction is to first attempt to open the file with a std::ifstream object. If the std::ifstream object fails to open the file, abort the operation. If it succeeds, close the file, and reopen the file with the desired file class. Similar techniques can be done with a std::fstream or std::filebuf object in place of the std::ifstream object with the right combination of flags.
  3. The noreplace flag doesn't exist in the standard library version of the iostream library either. To get the functionality of the noreplace flag you need to reverse the logic of the nocreate flag: open the file first with a std::ifstream (or std::filebuf or std::fstream object with the appropriate flags) and if it suceeds than abort the operation. Otherwise reopn the file with the desired end file class.
  4. Manual forward declarations of iostream objects may not compile depending on the compiler. The easiest solution is to replace such forward declarations with the inclusion of the iosfwd header.
  5. The CFront istream and ostsream classes had protected default constructors. Code extending the CFront iostream library to create custom stream classes would derived from istream or ostream and call the default constructor, followed by a call to init(). The standard library replaces this two stage construction method with a single argument constructor that accepts a streambuf object. Also the standard iostream objects will no longer take ownership of the streambuf assigned in the constructor. The consequence is that the derived class will need to manage the lifetime of the streambuf.
 you can see the following examples of Hello world

#include <iostream>

int main(int, char **) {
  std::cout << "Hello World!" << std::endl;

  return 0;
 #include <iostream>

int main(int, char **) {
  using namespace std;

  cout << "Hello World!" << endl;

  return 0;

#include <iostream>

int main(int, char **) {
  using std::cout;
  using std::endl;

  cout << "Hello World!" << endl;

  return 0;



Sources of Protein and Protein Deficiency symptoms


Protein is an important nutrient that is key to every cell in your body. Your body needs protein to build and repair tissues — and to make enzymes and hormones. Healthy bones, blood, hair, nails and muscles all rely on protein and since our bodies can’t store it, we must get high quality protein from our food. If we don’t we may be aging prematurely.
On the other side of the picture too much protein can create health risks too! High protein diets, once thought of as excellent for weight loss, are actually coming under fire these days for the adverse effects on health including heart disease, stroke, osteoporosis, kidney stones and elevated levels of ammonium in the female reproductive tract leading to difficulty conceiving.  So clearly we need to be in balance
In this post  I am bringing some awareness to the signs of protein deficiency and if you see them some strategies to help you come back into balance.

Protein Deficiency Signs 

Constant cravings are one sign of protein deficiency. Not everyone with cravings is protein deficient but protein and unstable sugar are intimately linked. Here are a few things to take note of:
  • If you are a vegetarian or rarely eat any animal protein and have cravings for carbs, you feel the need to fill up on bread, pasta or sweets that may be due to a deficiency of protein.
  • If you are eating 3 meals a day and find you need to have snacks to maintain your blood sugar, one possible cause could be a deficiency of protein.
Muscle and/or joint pain is another sign of protein deficiency. The body stores much of its protein reserves in the synovial fluid around the joints, to be used to rebuild the muscles and joints after exercise. When one is protein deficient, this reserve is the first to go. As a result, the joints stiffen and the muscles tighten.
Other Symptoms of more Severe Protein Deficiency:
  • Hair loss or Thinning brittle hair
  • Ridges in finger and toe nails
  • Excesive dry skin
  • Weak and tired
  • Edema (swelling)
If you have any of these symptoms and suspect you may not be getting adequate protein, think about getting a blind test and evaluation of your total serum protein from your healthy care professtional.

Options for Treating Protein Deficiency

Vegetarian Protein Shakes Have 2 hemp or rice protein shakes a day for 2 weeks. Buy Organic Raw Hemp Protein Powder gluten free and soy free.
Eat more of the Vegetarian High Protein foods listed below. Many plants such as quinoa, buckwheat, hemp seeds, fermented soy have complete proteins. Others are only slightly incomplete so eat a variety of them to round out the spectrum.
Add Bone Broth into your diet. Bone broth is full of minerals, enhances digestion, fortifies the immune system. Bones are highly mineralized, a well made broth will give your body calcium and other minerals all delivered in a form your body can easily absorb. The gelatin and collagen extracted from bone is protein dense. Add a little apple cider vinegar to the water to pull these precious minerals from the bone.
Eggs- Cage free organic eggs are full of protein and biotin. Eggs are misunderstood these days. The yolk contains lecithin which aids in fat assimilation. Eggs actively raise the level of HDL which is the good cholesterol.
Medicinal Animal Protein Consider a 2 week program of eating animal protein to rebuild protein and stabilize blood sugar: Eat 4 ounces of red meat a day for 2 weeks. If you can’t do the red meat do free range chicken or wild fish. Always look for animal proteins that are organic and free of hormones and antibiotics and treated humanely. Eat with plenty of vegetables and fermented vegetables

Protein percentages are listed from highest to lowest.
Guavas: 13% protein
Carambola: 11% protein
Peaches: 8% protein
Nectarines: 8% protein
Watermelon: 7% protein
Strawberries: 7% protein
Oranges: 7% protein
Grapefruit: 7% protein
Cherries: 6% protein
Honeydew melon: 5% protein
Plums: 5% protein
Sapote: 5% protein
Papaya: 5% protein
Bananas: 4% protein
Pineapple: 4% protein
Plantains: 4% protein
Asian pears: 4% protein
Blueberries: 4% protein
Mangoes: 3% protein
Cranberries: 3% protein
Persimmon, Japanese (fuyu): 3% protein
Persimmon, American (hachiya): 2% protein
Apples: 2% protein
Sapodilla: 2% protein

Spirulina: 56% protein
Watercress: 51%
Laver (seaweed): 40% protein
White mushrooms: 37% protein
Crimini mushrooms: 37% protein
Broccoi raab: 36% protein
Oyster mushrooms: 31% raw
Spinach: 30% protein
Sprouted mung beans: 28% protein
Chives: 27% protein
Asparagus: 27% protein
Arugula: 25% protein
Portabella mushrooms: 25% protein
Butterhead lettuce: 25% protein
Mustard greens: 25% protein
Beet greens: 24% protein
Lambsquarters: 24% protein
Mustard spinach: 24% protein
Cilantro: 23% protein
Sugar snap peas: 23% protein
Swiss chard: 23% protein
Green leaf lettuce: 22% protein
Sprouted lentils: 21% protein
Collards: 20% protein
Purslane: 20% protein
Nopales (cactus pads): 20% protein
Parsley: 20% protein
Broccoli: 20% protein
Cauliflower: 19% protein
Chicory greens: 18% protein
Endive: 18% protein
Romaine lettuce: 18% protein
Zucchini (courgette): 18% protein
Celery: 17% protein
Sprouted peas: 16% protein
Iceberg lettuce: 16% protein
Kale: 16% protein
Wakame (seaweed): 16% protein
Okra: 16% protein
Kohlrabi: 15% protein
Dandelion greens: 15% protein
Radicchio: 15% protein
Green beans: 14% protein
Scallions: 14% protein
Sweet red peppers: 13% protein
Tomatoes: 12% protein
Cabbage, green: 12% protein
Radishes: 12% protein
Garlic: 12% protein
Cucumber: 11% protein
Cabbage, purple: 11% protein
Turnip greens: 11% protein
Eggplant: 10% protein
Fennel: 10% protein
Kelp: 10% protein
Beets: 10% protein
Sweet green peppers: 10% protein
Celeriac: 10% protein
Sweet yellow peppers: 9% protein
Corn, yellow or white: 9% protein
Pumpkin: 9% protein
Turnips: 9% protein
Onions: 8% protein
Irish moss (seaweed): 8% protein
Leeks: 7% protein
Tomatillos: 7% protein
Carrots: 6% protein
Burdock root: 6% protein
Ginger root: 6% protein
Butternut squash: 5% protein
Acorn squash: 5% protein
Sweet potato: 5% protein
Parsnips: 4% protein

Nuts and seeds
Black walnuts: 14% protein
Pistachios: 13% protein
Almonds: 13% protein
Coconut water: 13% protein
Flaxseed: 12% protein
Sunflower seeds: 12% protein
Tahini: 11% protein
Chia seeds: 11% protein
Cashews: 11% protein
Brazil nuts: 8% protein
English walnuts: 8% protein
Hazelnuts (filberts): 8% protein
Pine nuts: 7% protein
Pecans: 5% protein
Macadamia nuts: 4% protein
Coconut meat: 3% protein

Reference :,